Análisis de los cambios en las comunidades de malezas en sistemas de siembra directa y sus factores determinantes

E. C. Puricelli, D. H. Tuesca


El sistema de siembra directa implica el uso conjunto de una serie de prácticas de manejo que determinan cambios adaptativos en la comunidad de malezas. Distintos sistemas de laboreo del suelo generan diferentes condiciones de luz, temperatura y humedad suficientes para alterar la emergencia y establecimiento de numerosas especies de malezas. El sistema de siembra directa requiere un empleo diferente de herbicidas y puede disminuir la eficiencia de los mismos Estos cambios en el control químico pueden contribuir a explicar modificaciones en la composición de la flora El impacto de los sistemas de siembra directa varia marcadamente según regiones y especies de malezas consideradas y en Argentina en particular, la información sobre el comportamiento de las comunidades de malezas en distintos sistemas de labranza es reducida Si bien esta revisión está centrada en las principales prácticas agrícolas y especies de malezas comunes en la pampa húmeda argentina, debido a la falta de información especifica en muchos aspectos, se ha recurrido también a investigaciones relevantes en otras áreas. La siembra directa continua conduce en la mayoría de los casos revisados a reducciones en la abundancia de muchas malezas latifoliadas anuales en el largo plazo. La excepción son las especies cuyos propágulos son transportados por el viento. Las poblaciones de gramíneas anuales, en cambio, son más abundantes en siembra directa
con respecto a sistemas de laboreo convencional Las malezas perennes como grupo no están asociadas a ningún sistema de labranza El conocimiento de la influencia de la siembra directa
sobre la flora de malezas contribuirá a lograr un control más confiable y un adecuado manejo del ambiente en la región.

Palabras clave

labranzas, siembra directa, malezas, comportamiento de herbicidas

Texto completo:



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